Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is most commonly used in a semi-quantitative manner to infer changes in brain activity. Despite the basis of the image contrast lying in the cerebral venous blood oxygenation level, quantification of absolute cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) has only recently been demonstrated. Here we examine two approaches to the calibration of fMRI signal to measure absolute CMRO2 using hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges. The first approach is to apply hypercapnia and hyperoxia separately but interleaved in time and the second is a combined approach in which we apply hyperoxic challenges simultaneously with different levels of hypercapnia. Eleven healthy volunteers were studied at 3T using a dual gradient-echo spiral readout pulsed arterial spin labelling (ASL) imaging sequence. Respiratory challenges were conducted using an automated system of dynamic end-tidal forcing. A generalised BOLD signal model was applied, within a Bayesian estimation framework, that aims to explain the effects of modulation of CBF and arterial oxygen content to estimate venous deoxyhaemoglobin concentration ([dHb]0). Using CBF measurements combined with the estimated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), absolute CMRO2 was calculated. The interleaved approach to hypercapnia and hyperoxia, as well as yielding estimates of CMRO2 and OEF demonstrated a significant increase in regional CBF, venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) (a decrease in OEF) and absolute CMRO2 in visual cortex in response to a continuous (20 min) visual task, demonstrating the potential for the method in measuring long term changes in CMRO2. The combined approach to oxygen and carbon dioxide modulation, as well as taking less time to acquire data, yielded whole brain grey matter estimates of CMRO2 and OEF of 184±45 μmol/100 g/min and 0.42±0.12 respectively, along with additional estimates of the vascular parameters α=0.33±0.06, the exponent relating relative increases in CBF to CBV, and β=1.35±0.13, the exponent relating deoxyhaemoglobin concentration to the relaxation rate R2*. Maps of cerebrovascular and cerebral metabolic parameters were also calculated. We show that combined modulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide can offer an experimentally more efficient approach to estimating OEF and absolute CMRO2 along with the additional vascular parameters that form an important part of the commonly used calibrated fMRI signal model.

Measurement of OEF and absolute CMRO2: MRI-based methods using interleaved and combined hypercapnia and hyperoxia

Wise R. G.
Primo
;
2013

Abstract

Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is most commonly used in a semi-quantitative manner to infer changes in brain activity. Despite the basis of the image contrast lying in the cerebral venous blood oxygenation level, quantification of absolute cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) has only recently been demonstrated. Here we examine two approaches to the calibration of fMRI signal to measure absolute CMRO2 using hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges. The first approach is to apply hypercapnia and hyperoxia separately but interleaved in time and the second is a combined approach in which we apply hyperoxic challenges simultaneously with different levels of hypercapnia. Eleven healthy volunteers were studied at 3T using a dual gradient-echo spiral readout pulsed arterial spin labelling (ASL) imaging sequence. Respiratory challenges were conducted using an automated system of dynamic end-tidal forcing. A generalised BOLD signal model was applied, within a Bayesian estimation framework, that aims to explain the effects of modulation of CBF and arterial oxygen content to estimate venous deoxyhaemoglobin concentration ([dHb]0). Using CBF measurements combined with the estimated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), absolute CMRO2 was calculated. The interleaved approach to hypercapnia and hyperoxia, as well as yielding estimates of CMRO2 and OEF demonstrated a significant increase in regional CBF, venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) (a decrease in OEF) and absolute CMRO2 in visual cortex in response to a continuous (20 min) visual task, demonstrating the potential for the method in measuring long term changes in CMRO2. The combined approach to oxygen and carbon dioxide modulation, as well as taking less time to acquire data, yielded whole brain grey matter estimates of CMRO2 and OEF of 184±45 μmol/100 g/min and 0.42±0.12 respectively, along with additional estimates of the vascular parameters α=0.33±0.06, the exponent relating relative increases in CBF to CBV, and β=1.35±0.13, the exponent relating deoxyhaemoglobin concentration to the relaxation rate R2*. Maps of cerebrovascular and cerebral metabolic parameters were also calculated. We show that combined modulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide can offer an experimentally more efficient approach to estimating OEF and absolute CMRO2 along with the additional vascular parameters that form an important part of the commonly used calibrated fMRI signal model.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/741621
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