Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a specific and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and dopamine, causing motor dysfunctions and impaired movements. Unfortunately, available therapies can partially treat the motor symptoms, but they have no effect on non-motor features. In addition, the therapeutic effect reduces gradually, and the prolonged use of drugs leads to a significative increase in the number of adverse events. For these reasons, an alternative approach that allows the replacement or the improved survival of DA neurons is very appealing for the treatment of PD patients and recently the first human clinical trials for DA neurons replacement have been set up. Here, we review the role of chemical and biological molecules that are involved in the development, survival and differentiation of DA neurons. In particular, we review the chemical small molecules used to differentiate different type of stem cells into DA neurons with high efficiency; the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs both in DA neurons development/survival as far as in the pathogenesis of PD; and, finally, we dissect the potential role of exosomes carrying biological molecules as treatment of PD.

Chemical and Biological Molecules Involved in Differentiation, Maturation, and Survival of Dopaminergic Neurons in Health and Parkinson's Disease: Physiological Aspects and Clinical Implications

Di Credico A.;Izzicupo P.;Di Baldassarre A.
;
Ghinassi B.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a specific and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and dopamine, causing motor dysfunctions and impaired movements. Unfortunately, available therapies can partially treat the motor symptoms, but they have no effect on non-motor features. In addition, the therapeutic effect reduces gradually, and the prolonged use of drugs leads to a significative increase in the number of adverse events. For these reasons, an alternative approach that allows the replacement or the improved survival of DA neurons is very appealing for the treatment of PD patients and recently the first human clinical trials for DA neurons replacement have been set up. Here, we review the role of chemical and biological molecules that are involved in the development, survival and differentiation of DA neurons. In particular, we review the chemical small molecules used to differentiate different type of stem cells into DA neurons with high efficiency; the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs both in DA neurons development/survival as far as in the pathogenesis of PD; and, finally, we dissect the potential role of exosomes carrying biological molecules as treatment of PD.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/758041
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