KDEL receptors (KDELRs) are ubiquitous seven-transmembrane domain proteins encoded by three mammalian genes. They bind to and retro-transport endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- resident proteins with a C-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence or variants thereof. In doing this, KDELR participates in the ER quality control of newly synthesized proteins and the unfolded protein response. The binding of KDEL proteins to KDELR initiates signaling cascades involving three alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, Src family kinases, protein kinases A (PKAs), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These signaling pathways coordinate membrane trafficking flows between secretory compartments and control the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), an important step in cancer progression. Considering the basic cellular functions performed by KDELRs, their association with various diseases is not surprising. KDELR mutants unable to bind the collagen-specific chaperon heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47) cause the osteogenesis imperfecta. Moreover, the overexpression of KDELRs appears to be linked to neurodegenerative diseases that share pathological ER-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Even immune function requires a functional KDELR1, as its mutants reduce the number of T lymphocytes and impair antiviral immunity. Several studies have also brought to light the exploitation of the shuttle activity of KDELR during the intoxication and maturation/exit of viral particles. Based on the above, KDELRs can be considered potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for a variety of diseases involving proteostasis disruption, cancer progression, and infectious disease. However, no drugs targeting KDELR functions are available to date; rather, KDELR has been leveraged to deliver drugs efficiently into cells or improve antigen presentation.

KDEL Receptors: Pathophysiological Functions, Therapeutic Options, and Biotechnological Opportunities

Cela, Ilaria
Co-primo
;
Dufrusine, Beatrice
Co-primo
;
Rossi, Claudia;De Laurenzi, Vincenzo;Federici, Luca;Sallese, Michele
2022-01-01

Abstract

KDEL receptors (KDELRs) are ubiquitous seven-transmembrane domain proteins encoded by three mammalian genes. They bind to and retro-transport endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- resident proteins with a C-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence or variants thereof. In doing this, KDELR participates in the ER quality control of newly synthesized proteins and the unfolded protein response. The binding of KDEL proteins to KDELR initiates signaling cascades involving three alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, Src family kinases, protein kinases A (PKAs), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These signaling pathways coordinate membrane trafficking flows between secretory compartments and control the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), an important step in cancer progression. Considering the basic cellular functions performed by KDELRs, their association with various diseases is not surprising. KDELR mutants unable to bind the collagen-specific chaperon heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47) cause the osteogenesis imperfecta. Moreover, the overexpression of KDELRs appears to be linked to neurodegenerative diseases that share pathological ER-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Even immune function requires a functional KDELR1, as its mutants reduce the number of T lymphocytes and impair antiviral immunity. Several studies have also brought to light the exploitation of the shuttle activity of KDELR during the intoxication and maturation/exit of viral particles. Based on the above, KDELRs can be considered potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for a variety of diseases involving proteostasis disruption, cancer progression, and infectious disease. However, no drugs targeting KDELR functions are available to date; rather, KDELR has been leveraged to deliver drugs efficiently into cells or improve antigen presentation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/781195
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