(1) Background: Obesity, a complex metabolic disease resulting from an imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure, leads to an increase in adipocytes and chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of this paper was to synthesize a small series of carvacrol derivatives (CD1-3) that are able to reduce both adipogenesis and the inflammatory status often associated with the progression of the obesity disease. (2) Methods: The synthesis of CD1-3 was performed using classical procedures in a solution phase. Biological studies were performed on three cell lines: 3T3-L1, WJ-MSCs, and THP-1. The anti-adipogenic properties of CD1-3 were evaluated using western blotting and densitometric analysis by assessing the expression of obesity-related proteins, such as ChREBP. The anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by measuring the reduction in TNF-alpha expression in CD1-3-treated THP-1 cells. (3) Results: CD1-3-obtained through a direct linkage between the carboxylic moiety of anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Flurbiprofen, and Naproxen) and the hydroxyl group of carvacrol-have an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of lipids in both 3T3-L1 and WJ-MSCs cell cultures and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing TNF- alpha levels in THP-1 cells. (4) Conclusions: Considering the physicochemical properties, stability, and biological data, the CD3 derivative-obtained by a direct linkage between carvacrol and naproxen-resulted in the best candidate, displaying anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro.

Anti-Obesity and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Novel Carvacrol Derivatives on 3T3-L1 and WJ-MSCs Cells

Cacciatore, Ivana
;
Di Rienzo, Annalisa;Fornasari, Erika;Pierdomenico, Laura;Del Boccio, Piero;Valentinuzzi, Silvia;Costantini, Erica;Toniato, Elena;Martinotti, Stefano;Di Stefano, Antonio;Robuffo, Iole
2023-01-01

Abstract

(1) Background: Obesity, a complex metabolic disease resulting from an imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure, leads to an increase in adipocytes and chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of this paper was to synthesize a small series of carvacrol derivatives (CD1-3) that are able to reduce both adipogenesis and the inflammatory status often associated with the progression of the obesity disease. (2) Methods: The synthesis of CD1-3 was performed using classical procedures in a solution phase. Biological studies were performed on three cell lines: 3T3-L1, WJ-MSCs, and THP-1. The anti-adipogenic properties of CD1-3 were evaluated using western blotting and densitometric analysis by assessing the expression of obesity-related proteins, such as ChREBP. The anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by measuring the reduction in TNF-alpha expression in CD1-3-treated THP-1 cells. (3) Results: CD1-3-obtained through a direct linkage between the carboxylic moiety of anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Flurbiprofen, and Naproxen) and the hydroxyl group of carvacrol-have an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of lipids in both 3T3-L1 and WJ-MSCs cell cultures and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing TNF- alpha levels in THP-1 cells. (4) Conclusions: Considering the physicochemical properties, stability, and biological data, the CD3 derivative-obtained by a direct linkage between carvacrol and naproxen-resulted in the best candidate, displaying anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
pharmaceuticals-16-00340-v2 (1).pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Dimensione 2.21 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.21 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/813352
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact