: The identification of molecular indicators of higher risk for specific subgroups of cancer patients may allow to develop more aggressive therapeutic strategies aimed at cases with the highest likelihood of response. This would avoid unnecessary toxicity to patients and alleviate the burden of cancer care for healthcare systems. Activated oncogenes and mutated tumor suppressor genes are causal determinants of the appearance and progression of tumors in man. They therefore represent potential indicators of prognosis and/or response to therapy. However, even in cases of well-studied oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes such as TP53 and RAS, their attributed prognostic and predictive value is often based on studies of insufficient statistical power that often lead to conflicting conclusions. Findings in favor or against the use of TP53 and RAS as prognostic and predictive indicators in breast cancer are reviewed and discussed here.
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